Le Foodist Paris Cooking Class

Why did Food Taste Better in the Past?

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If you ask people in their 70s or older about the way food tastes today, they'll most likely tell you that it's nothing like what they grew up with. Many initially attributed this to changing times and aging taste buds, but today, studies have shown that what we eat has, in fact, changed substantially over the past century.

This change has occurred for a number of reasons - some good, some bad. Scientific knowledge of tasting has revolutionized everything from the flavors in our sodas to tasting wine at restaurants, but on the other hand, factory farming has made meats less flavorful and nutritious. Overall, modern research and technology have permanently altered the way we produce and consume different foods.

why did food taste better in the past

The Science of Flavors

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Imagine you're at a wine tasting. Before taking a sip, you swirl the wine around your glass and take in its aroma, and you then take a small sip and swirl it around your mouth so that it reaches every corner. This methodical process shows how taste and smell combine to allow us to perceive various flavors.

In our mouths, we have nerve receptors that enable us to detect five primary flavors - sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami. While these receptors are somewhat determined by genetics, they're also heavily impacted by what you eat while growing up. Therefore, a person who grew up in the Midwest during the 1930s will have a far different palate than someone growing up in Hawaii today.

In addition to receptors in our mouths, scent receptors also contribute heavily to our perceptions of flavors. Because your nose and mouth share an airway, aroma combines with the five types of receptors on your tongue to enable you to more thoroughly perceive flavors. Additionally, scent often connects more thoroughly with memory, so if something smells familiar, you're more likely to associate it with past memories.

Though this sense differs widely from person to person based on palate development during childhood, scientists can study wider trends by examining data from large population samples. Therefore, many studies have determined that food does, indeed, have a different taste than it did years ago.

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Why the Difference?

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Over the past century, the taste of food has changed substantially for various reasons, including enhanced scientific knowledge of flavor, health, and production techniques. While some of these changes have been positive, others have harmed our health and environment. 

The Power of Flavor Knowledge

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One of the primary reasons behind changing flavors is our enhanced scientific knowledge of the subject. Simply put, we know more about what flavors appeal to the average American palate, and producers create foods accordingly. In the early 1900s, most goods were relatively simple, and they were brought to market as long as they looked unspoiled. However, producers in the modern-day heavily test what they release to ensure that their product is designed to be enjoyed by their target market. Because we know more about flavors and our brain's reactions to good food, producers use that knowledge to optimize their goods, and gastronomy enthusiasts have used it to revolutionize processes from flavor combinations to wine tasting.

In addition to pure scientific knowledge, globalization has brought us access to all kinds of flavors from all over the world. Therefore, in globalized countries like the US or France, everyday persons can access unique spices from the Middle East or India and the hottest peppers from Asia or South America. Because we can now access the best and boldest flavors from across the globe, simple salt and pepper seem incredibly bland in comparison.

Changing Health Perceptions

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Food has also changed due to altered perceptions of what we consider healthy eating habits. Some ingredients, such as lard and other fats, were once quite common in American cooking, but because mainstream society began to perceive them as unhealthy, they have been slowly removed from our diets. The same goes for sugar in recent years - how many products do you see in a store marketed as "fat-free" or "sugar-free?"

Additionally, these changing perceptions have also prompted us to introduce various food safety measures at the production level. Pasteurization, for example, kills off many harmful microbes in dairy, canned goods, and other processed goods, extending food's shelf life and altering its composition. For example, fresh vegetables will have stronger flavors than canned vegetables, which have been pasteurized.

Changes in Farming

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Over the past century, farming techniques have focused increasingly on producing as much as possible with less regard to other matters - especially in the realm of meat production. Chickens today, for example, grow substantially larger than their counterparts a century ago due to advances in breeding and nutrition, and because nutritional additives have prevented many diseases that result from keeping chickens indoors, factory farms with thousands of chickens have developed to produce as much as possible. With the exception of small, organic farmers, most farms today focus on mass production. 

Additives and Processed Foods

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The largest difference between foods of today and of a century ago is the amount of processing and additives involved. In the early 1900s, the majority of meals were prepared freshly from raw ingredients, but today, even home-cooked meals may feature pre-made bread, sauces, or other ingredients. Even base ingredients like milk, flour, or butter are processed in some way prior to filling store shelves. Much of this processing occurs due to the need to transport goods across long distances; as America urbanizes, goods need to travel for hundreds - if not thousands - of miles before reaching the intended consumer.

This processing generally entails using additives, such as preservatives, to keep food fresh during transport. Essentially, these additives seek to mimic the flavors and nutritional quality of freshly-made food, and they can also be used to enhance or create flavor. High fructose corn syrup, for example, is often added to processed baked goods in order to make them sweeter.

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  1. Does microwaving change the taste of food?

When you microwave a bowl of leftovers, you may find that your food tastes a bit different from how it tasted the night before. This change is a result of the way a microwave cooks food. Unlike stoves or conventional ovens, which cook using heat, microwaves cook food using radiation, which produces heat by energizing particles—especially water particles—in food. Microwaves therefore primarily cook through heating these water particles, so if too much water evaporates from the food, it can become dry or rubbery. Additionally, because this radiation heats food from the inside out, you cannot obtain the same taste and texture of oven-baked or sauteed food, and certain chemical reactions that occur when cooking on a stove or an oven cannot occur due to the relatively low temperature of evaporated water. Therefore, when you microwave your food, you may end up with a dish that tastes different because you are not cooking the dish using traditional heating methods.

  1. Is Maggi a junk food?

Maggi is an international food brand that is best known for its seasonings, such as bullion cubes and sauce, and its instant soups and noodles. Maggi also offers a variety of recipe mixes, including mashed potato flakes. Maggi is quite popular in Europe, Asia, and Africa, and Maggi seasoning cubes are a major part of local cuisine in many of those countries.

Despite the brand’s popularity, Maggi has often been deemed a junk food brand since it sells processed foods that are high in sodium and MSG. However, whether or not Maggi is classified as a junk food depends on the product in question. Maggi sauce, which is similar to soy sauce, is high in sodium and MSG, so while it may add an unhealthy element to a dish, whether or not that dish is healthy depends on its overall content—not the addition of Maggi sauce. Maggi instant noodles, on the other hand, are a junk food because they offer little nutritional value while being calorie- and sodium-dense.

  1. What are the side effects of food preservative?

Although preservatives allow food to last longer than it would naturally, preservatives have a number of side effects that impact either the food product or the consumer. Natural preservatives, such as salt or dehydration, are not necessarily harmful to the health of the consumer, but they often substantially impact the taste of the food being preserved. Beef jerky, for instance, is beef that is preserved through salting or dehydration, so the jerky will be tougher and saltier than regular beef. Artificial preservatives have even more side effects. Some preservatives, such as sulfites, can cause allergic reactions, and others can damage your organs and contain carcinogens. Sodium nitrate, which is found in many processed meats in the US, has been linked to stomach cancer, and a number of European countries have begun to ban this preservative. Many preservatives - namely mono- and diglycerides - also contain unhealthy fats. In summary, natural preservatives will often drastically alter the taste and texture of foods whereas unnatural preservatives can cause negative side effects to consumers.

  1. What does MSG do to your brain?

MSG, or monosodium glutamate, is a common food additive that enhances savory, umami flavors in foods by functioning as a neurotransmitter in your brain. MSG is a sodium salt of glutamic acid, an amino acid in humans, which allows it to act as a flavor enhancer. Essentially, MSG enhances certain flavors by stimulating nerve cells, which is why it has become a popular additive - particularly in Asian cooking and processed foods.

MSG’s effect on the human brain has ignited a heated debate on whether this additive is relatively harmless or if it is potentially dangerous. Some researchers contend that MSG is an excitotoxin because it excessively stimulates nerve cells and causes a buildup of glutamate in the brain, but others note that this hypothesis is not conclusive. However, certain people may be more sensitive to MSG than others, and some studies have linked MSG to weight gain. Overall, most research has concluded that MSG rarely causes long-term damage in small amounts.

  1. How do you cook a healthy meal that is also tasty?

Any skilled cook knows that eating delicious food and eating healthy food are not mutually exclusive since there are plenty of ways to make filling and flavorful dishes that are also healthy. The first key to making delicious and healthy food is seasoning. Herbs and spices add little in the way of calories, fat, and sodium, but they can greatly enhance the flavor of any food that you cook. Second, you should use fats wisely in your cooking. Although fat has become a dirty word in the world of healthy eating, it actually can enhance your food when used sparingly. Sauteing your vegetables in a splash of olive oil, for instance, will help your body break down fat-soluble nutrients like vitamin K while enhancing the flavor of the dish. Finally, you should do your best to make your dishes from scratch. Fresh ingredients have a higher nutritional content and better taste than processed ones, making them ideal for healthy and delicious cooking.

  1. What is the definition of gastronomy?

At its most basic, gastronomy refers to the science of cooking and eating good food. More specifically, gastronomy studies the relationship between culture and food, the art of preparing delicious and appetizing food, and regional cooking styles. This disciple asks questions such as “why does this food taste good?” and “why are some cuisines spicier than others?” Gastronomy first originated in France in the early 1800s when Joseph Berchoux published “Gastronomie,” which reflected on the science of making good food. There are two main branches of gastronomy - theoretical gastronomy and practical gastronomy. Practical gastronomy addresses the preparation and production of foods and beverages around the world. Theoretical gastronomy, on the other hand, takes a closer look at the systems and processes behind making good food, such as recipes and cooking techniques. In recent years, other branches of gastronomy have emerged to support the discipline. Molecular gastronomy, for instance, studies the biological and chemical basis for cooking.

  1. Do people still use recipes from the past today?

Although modern restaurant dishes look substantially different from what they did a century ago, some recipes have stuck around for ages. Stews, for instance, have been cooked for over 7,000 years. Cooks in the Amazon, Ancient Greece, and even the Old Testament simmered meat and vegetables together in broth or juices. Likewise, curry – a similar simmering dish – originated in the Indian subcontinent around 2,000 BC. Pancakes, which are flat, thin cakes cooked on a griddle, have also existed for centuries, and their recipe has hardly changed throughout their history. Even hamburgers, which are commonly thought of as a modern food, have their roots in the Roman Empire. The Roman recipe for isicia omentata consists of minced beef made into patties with other ingredients, roughly resembling the modern hamburger. Likewise, though cheesecakes have changed substantially since their inception, the Greeks invented the first cheesecake when they mixed honey, flour, and soft cheese to make sweet cakes for parties and weddings.

  1. Why is lard not frequently used in cooking anymore?

In the early 1900s, lard was commonly used in Western cooking, but today, you can hardly even find it in your local grocery store. Lard fell out of fashion in modern cooking for a variety of reasons – primarily availability and health perceptions. First, in the early 1900s, alternative oils, such as Crisco, began to emerge, and companies marketed those oils as a better, healthier alternative to lard. Then, in WWII, the majority of lard went to the military, so more people began using those oils since they were cheaper and more widely available. From there, the decline of lard can be primarily attributed to nutrition advice and perceptions of it as an unhealthy food. Scientists in the 1950s and beyond attributed lard to weight gain and heart disease, so vegetable oils became known as a healthier alternative to fatty lard. Lard thus earned a bad reputation as an unhealthy food, and that reputation continues today.

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More About Our Baguettes Classes

Getting a bit technical during our Baguette Class in Paris

The French baguette, actually probably better known as the Parisian baguette has beome a true symbol of French popular gastronomy. A true icon of French life even - look around and you will see the Parisians strolling back home with their baguettes under their arm. But if you are French why would you learn how to do this? You can buy a baguette at any corner of Paris for about one Euro a piece.  But in our Baguette Class in Paris  you will learn how do this from scratch. It is somewhat technical, but also full of tips and tricks. But when you leave, it will have not secret left for you. From the original mix to the famous "scarification" through adding water to your oven through baking, you will see and do it all.

Learning more during your Baguette class in Paris: Croque Monsieur Bread and Brioche

This class is like all our other baking or cooking classes: totally hands-on. So you get to practice from beginning to end - and to taste at the end. But not only will you learn how to make Baguette, but you will also learn to make two more types of bread: the French Croque Monsieur bread. The basis for the classic French bistrot appetizer. And in your Baguette class in Paris you will also learn how to make your own Brioche. Probably the most indulgent bread you will find in France - if not the lightest ...

And you might learn some history during your Baguette Class in Paris

While you will learn the techniques to create - and get to taste - three classic types of French breads, you will also learn some of the stories on the origin of the baguette. Just beware it is still being quite hotly debated. What is for sure though is that the Baguette is absolutely part of today Parisian's life. A classic you will be able to take back home with you.

More About Our Wine and Cheese Lunch in Paris

Cheese and Wine in Paris

The pleasures we can derive from French cuisine can seem endless.  However two of the best known and loved French gastronomic heroes are French cheese and wine. Whether we talk about a Brie which actually comes from very close to Paris, to a creamy Camembert from Normandy, or a Comté from the Alps, French cheese has a delight for all palates. And of course, French wines are even better known whether from Bordeaux great wines or Burgundy sophisticated whites – all of which enthral wine lovers.  Well, at our course on cheese and wine in Paris you will come to appreciate that although each is delicious on its own, properly matched cheese and wine together can make the experience of each even more enjoyable and an absolute delight.

How to pair French cheese and wine

Because not all pairings are actually what people expect, at Le Foodist we have decided to call these experiences 'Daring Pairings'. Maybe because we like to step out of the ordinary to challenge our taste buds, but really all we try to do is give you the perfect match fo cheese and wine in Paris.  So not only will you learn how to select the best wine to go with your cheese, but you will also learn what are the big cheese families in France – there are actually only five, and this is one of the keys to great pairing. In discovering all these pairings of cheese with wine you will be convinced that indeed two things together can be better than the sum of their parts.

It is important to have fun with pairing cheese and wine in Paris

Beyond the tastings though, we have found that the best way to help our clients remember and re-use their experience is to vary the way to approach both wine and cheese.  That is why during our courses on cheese and wine in Paris we share sensory games and many an anecdote to bring the produce to life in your mind as well as on your palate. Overall we will feature four excellent wines, one Champagne and demonstrate to you how best each combines with cheese, letting your taste guide you along with our teaching.

Understanding cheese and wine pairing while in Paris

While for many top Parisian wine stores and restaurant wine lists can be confusing and even intimidating, we believe that after our lunch learning how to pair cheese and wine in Paris, you will feel much more comfortable navigating all of those.  And we sincerely hope your knowledge will help you unlock a door to a whole new world of enjoyment of French wine and cheese pairing.  At every step of the way our sommelier will also share unique tips and tricks to understand wines better and how culture and wine are so related in France; hopefully enriching your own experience as well.

And they do not have to do with what you will find in those markets. They have to do with when you can go shopping there. Open Air markets are only open in the morning. Typically from 8:30 am to 1:30 pm. And they are not open every day. As a matter of fact for the vast majority they are open either open every other day (Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday or Wednesday, Friday, Sunday), or sometimes only twice a week. 

This is the case of the Bastille Market (Metro Bastille and Metro Bréguet Sabin )which is open only on Thursday and Sunday morning. We like to send people there because it is a very big market with over one hundred vendors. And it has a nice stand of Crêperie in the middle. Here you get a video of a lady preparing a crêpe there; and you can get that crêpe for only 3 Euros!
There is only one Open Air market open every day of the week, it is called Marché Aligre (Metro Ledru Rollin or Metro Faidherbe Chaligny) which happens on the eponymous street. It is an interesting market because you find all kinds of quality in that market – the good, the bad and the ugly. There is also a nice covered market in the middle of it called Marché Beauveau – sometimes called Marché Beauveau Aligre. On the contrary, Covered Markets are open every day, and not just in the morning, but also in the late afternoon. Typically from 4:30 pm to 8:00 pm.

We are blessed with two markets close to where Le Foodist is located, so we can walk to a market every morning – sometimes it is the Maubert market, and sometimes it is the Monge market. Both nice with their own specififies. Last but not least, none of these markets is open on Monday. Do not sign-up for a Market Tour on Monday, you might never see that money again …

Choosing Ingredients in Paris

While all markets are different, they also have some things in common. First they work on specific schedules as explained before. But also you will find always at a minimum the following vendors: a Maraîcher – this is the name we give to people selling fruits and vegetables, a butcher, a fishmonger, a cheesemonger and a baker. Normally you will find several of each, with different levels of quality, organic or non-organic, local or not local (but mostly not local unfortunately).
And we explain how to recognize each of those of course during our Market Visits and Cooking Classes in Paris. But choosing ingredients can be daunting at first, because of the variety that is on display. A typical fishmonger will carry 20 different types of fishes, and as many shrimp and shelf fish varieties. A good cheese monger will easily carry up to 100 different types of cheese and obviously you could get over 100 different cuts of meat at a butcher (from the type of meat to the cut itself). And a normal Maraicher will carry between 50 and 100 fruits and vegetables as well.
This is what makes these markets so exciting – the variety of products, the beauty of their display, and the exchange you can have with most of the vendors. We give you tips though on how to make sure that exchange with the vendors go well – a few magic words, and everything will be fine!

Cooking in Paris

Obviously going to markets is nice, but actually knowing that you are going to cook what you find there is even more exciting. It is not uncommon for Parisians to buy a little bit too much food because they get so excited at the idea of cooking it all! But as most of us have hardly any space where we live, that can limit the enthusiasm sometimes. Because of the lack of space, Cooking in Paris can be quite different from cooking in the rest of France. And there are also dishes that are typically associated with regions which the Parisian will not cook at home – but taste when they visit friends or families in the various regions of France. However our kitchen has plenty of space, so we can cook traditional French dishes without a problem – whether they come from Paris or any region. And the most important part for us is to ensure that we share techniques much more than just recipes. As a matter of fact, we love to share a bit of the science behind what we do so people can better remember the “what” by understanding the “why”.

Sharing Stories

In November 2010, some experts from the UN cultural organisation, decided tha France’s multi-course gastronomic meal, with its rites and its presentation, fulfilled the conditions for featuring on the “world intangible list” of the UNESCO.
In this list you can find all kinds of cultural practices, including Mexico Day of the Dead festival for example. Importantly this is not suggesting French cuisine is better than other cuisines (even though we the French tend to believe that …). It is only saying that the gastronomic meal and what it entails is a very vivid cultural practice which people in France partake into on a very regular basis. That is why the same experts indicated that the French gastronomic meal is a “social custom aimed at celebrating the most important moments in the lives of individuals and groups”. And in that social custom, there are many parts: the attention we pay to the way we choose ingredients, how we pair wine with food, how many dishes we will present to our guests, how we lay the table, etc… But one big part of the cultural practice is that commensality (the fact of sharing the food) is always accompanied by sharing stories about …. Well, you would have guessed it, Food of course!
To us it is THE perfect example of how Food and Culture come together – actually we decide to share food is a considered a cultural practice. I would argue that it is true of all countries, regions, etc… As the way we relate to Food is such a big part of anybody’s identity. But as a result and to make sure you have the most genuine experience of French culture, after the a coking class in Paris at Le Foodist, you will share a gastronomic meal at a common table with your Chef and fellow participants to the class.

French Wine and Food Pairing

As mentioned above, one of the big cultural practices in France is choosing how to pair Wine and Food in general and Wine and Cheese in particular. We actually have a class which focuses specifically on this. As it is so important though, we always make sure we share white and red wines during our meals, chosen to pair well in our opinion with the food we cook. And being at the table together is a good opportunity to discuss about wine as well, with concepts such as “terroir” (to simplify, terroir means “what you do depends on where you are”) which are essential to grasp the way the French think about Food.
And all this will always go with a cheering “Santé” – which quite simply means, to your good health!

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